Success of academic performance depends upon the efficiency of knowledge transfer held in school system to provide quality learning for students. Subject matter is written in source book and it is transferred to brain through the process of brainpage modulation. Learning drives are needed in classroom to know the subject matter of prescribed chapters. In fact, learning initiative plays a critical role in the knowledge transfer of classroom, triggered by the amygdala system of brain.
Hippocampus of brain is primarily involved in learning and memory, while amygdala is primarily responsible for emotional processing. It is important to knowledge transfer that how sensory information gets to the brain and how motor knowledge can travel to the muscles of body parts for smart learning, precise writing and hard working. Together these two systems allow us to detect and respond to the learning of subject matter. But how do students engage with that knowledge transfer? How do they determine what is important for fast learning?
These are some basic queries of classroom performance in which learning will be secured and complete in school hours. Student’s activities must be focused to master the subject matter of chapter using the learning dimensions of brain. So, how do they conduct knowledge transfer in classroom situations? These higher cortical functions involve the complex circuits of amygdala system between neurotransmitters and hormones throughout the entire nervous system of learning mechanism. There are two main anatomical substrates of human brain like amygdala and anterior hippocampus that influence the learning process of students for the smart brainpage of knowledge chapters.
Amygdala describes the basic emotions of working mechanism and plays a vital part in the learning of survival factors such as life threats, food aroma, secured shelter, pathways navigation and reproductive drives. This is the core part of limbic system that decides the actions of physical body for the survival aspects of life in the particular field of surroundings. Amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and other accessory nuclei form the amygdala system of brain that deals with the survival functions of life.
Learning mechanism of brain is crucial to facilitate brainpage making process in the modulation of school chapters. Amygdala with anterior hippocampus plays a critical role in the knowledge transfer of school system. Amygdala system of brain deals with the three transfer circuits of cerebral cortex. Sensory cortex is considered as the input processor of knowledge transfer while the output processor of transfer circuit is defined in motor cortex and other frontal regions. Temporal lobe provides the circuit of knowledge processor.
Posterior to central sulcus is the region of input processor and this is also known as sensory inputs of information. Anterior to central sulcus is the region of output processor where higher order cortical function runs to rationalize the transfer of knowledge chapters by applying the modulation of motor knowledge.
The knowledge processor of information is located in temporal region of brain, inferior to lateral sulcus. Amygdala and hippocampus are found in medial temporal lobe and they act as the knowledge processor of learning mechanism. We know that hippocampus is the part of diencephalon and amygdala comes under the limbic system of brain. Temporal knowledge processor is the structure of interpretation and understanding that supports the many higher cortical functions of knowledge transfer.
Why is amygdala encapsulated in the uncus of medial temporal lobe?
Uncus is a hook shaped part located near the front of temporal lobe which is concerned with the senses of smell and taste. This is the anterior hooked extremity of parahippocampal gyrus on the basomedial surface of temporal lobe. The anterior face of uncus corresponds to the olfactory cortex and its ventral surface to entorhinal area. It is remarkable that deep to uncus lies the amygdala which has direct projections from the senses of smell and taste.
Food aroma is perceived by the senses of smell and taste which is vital to the survival of living organisms. First of all, olfactory sense developed during evolution to detect food aroma in the environment. Therefore, amygdala is very old part of the nervous system that regulates vital functions for the survival of life. So, it also plays critical roles in learning mechanism and information processing.
Amoeba is an unicellular animal and it has no sense organs. But it can detect food aroma in the surroundings for feeding. Amoeba eats tiny plants and animals present in pond water where it lives. It takes in food by extending finger like structures called pseudopodia from any part of its body. When a food particle comes near the amoeba, it produces two pseudopodia around the food particle and surrounds it. These pseudopodia then join around food particle and trap it in a food vacuole with a little water. So, the basic functions of amygdala system can be observed also in the feeding process of unicellular amoeba.
In human brain, amygdala is also connected with prefrontal cortex, an area involved with higher intellectual functions and receives sensory inputs from it all the time. But this is not a part of the conscious brain for thinking and reasoning. It does not think through images or situations in logical ways. Instead, amygdala is a part of the limbic system, an evolutionarily highly conserved area that was well developed in animals before man. This is the important part of brain to deal with loss aversion behavior and project an active vigilance for survival mechanism. It also decides zeid marker for learning efficiency and memory consolidation in the successful transfer of knowledge chapters.
Emotional knowledge is developed by the amygdala system of brain to show gesture, reactance and behavior in working and learning. It can be changed into learning force for cognitive learning and brainpage modulation. So, precise motor knowledge helps in the motivational control of knowledge transfer. The amygdala is an almond shaped structure underlying the uncus and located ventrally to corpus striatum in medial part of the temporal lobe. It also projects reciprocal connections to hypothalamus, basal ganglia and the regions of cerebral cortex. It plays important roles in visceral, endocrine and cognitive functions related to motivational behaviour.
Cerebellum is the miniaturized form of cerebrum in the working mechanism of brain. Motor knowledge is produced in the cerebral cortex of cerebrum. While motor knowledge is rehearsed in basal ganglia and precise motor knowledge develops in cerebellar learnography. Teaching is the performance of motor knowledge in which academic knowledge is transformed into motor knowledge by cerebellar learnography. Rational knowledge is embedded into emotional knowledge, then transformed into motor information for proper action. Amygdala system of student’s brain is hijacked in classroom during cerebellar teaching process and high motivation.
Picture : Coronal section of human brain showing inferior lateral ventricles, uncus, amygdala, temporal lobe, frontal lobe and anterior lateral ventricles
- Roles of amygdala and anterior hippocampus in learning mechanism
- Neuroscience of knowledge transfer
- Knowledge circuits in the cerebral cortex of human brain
- Three circuits of knowledge transfer
- Sensory cortex, motor cortex and knowledge cortex
Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School