Neuroscience is significant to treat the patients of mental disorders but it may be important also for the learning process of students. The volume of grey matter increases in the specific parts of our brain when something is practiced to succeed in work performance. It can be observed in neuroscience for clinical perspectives by using advanced technology. This is the advancement of neuroscience but it has done nothing in school system.

Instance guided object learning (IGOL) is very powerful in knowledge transfer because instance has strong projection in posterior cingulate cortex to reflect the reactance of learning emotions.

Teaching is the system of knowledge transfer in education, about 5000 years old system. We know that the learning mechanism of brain is important for knowledge transfer and neuroscience can provide a smart system of knowledge transfer for our children in classroom.

Highlights :

  • Default mode network (DMN) of brain circuits
  • Attention management system in the working brain
  • Permutations of fear factor in the emotional processing of perception
  • Fear of homework and teachers

Fear is the strongest factor of human emotions and other emotions such as love, hate, anger, pleasure, reward, failure, sadness and anxiety are its permutations. The disorders of posterior cingulate cortex may be attention eater in which the learning focus of brainpage making process is not maintained for the convergence of knowledge transfer. Sensory areas and roots are found in the posterior part of central nervous system, while motor areas and roots are localized in the anterior region of neural structures. This is the fundamental anatomy of brain circuits.

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Emotion is modulated to maintain and fix attention in a particular pathway of brain circuit for the performance of working mechanism. Depression is the disorder of fear factors caused in the cingulate cortex of human brain.

What is the basic function of emotion?

Fear is everywhere in our surroundings. Some people achieve great things in spite of their fear while other people are paralyzed into inaction by those very same fears. We establish relationship with everyone of those fears and anxieties. Depression, anger and anxiety come from a sense of disconnection. Anxiety makes us afraid of what we are are doing and thinking. It may happen that we could lose something, miss an opportunity or be inadequate.

Posterior cingulate cortex forms a central node in the default mode network (DMN) of brain. DMN is crucial to the working mechanism of brain and plays a significant role in the learning mechanism of knowledge transfer. It has been shown to communicate with several brain networks simultaneously and is involved in various functions related to attention management systems.

Posterior cingulate cortex of brain is the generator of emotionalized virtual reality to transfer knowledge spectrum in learning process.

The posterior cingulate cortex of brain is the caudal part of cingulate cortex, located posterior to anterior cingulate cortex. This is the upper part of limbic lobe. Cingulate cortex is made up of an area around the mid line of brain above corpus callosum. Surrounding areas of posterior cingulate cortex include the retrosplenial cortex and precuneus of subcortical region.

Fear factor is the root of emotional generator that is conducted in the posterior cingulate cortex of brain.

Along with precuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex of brain has been implicated as a neural substrate for awareness in numerous studies of both anesthesized and vegetative coma state. Imaging studies indicate a prominent role for posterior cingulate cortex in pain and episodic memory retrieval. Increased size of posterior ventral cingulate cortex is related to declines in working memory performance. The posterior cingulate cortex of human brain has been strongly implicated as a key part of several intrinsic control networks.

Structural and functional abnormalities in the posterior cingulate cortex of human brain result in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Posterior cingulate cortex likely integrates and mediates information in the working networks of brain. Therefore, its functional and anatomical abnormalities might be an accumulation of remote and widespread damage in the brain circuits.

Disorders :

  1. Alzheimer’s disease
  2. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  4. Depression
  5. Schizophrenia
  6. Traumatic brain injury
  7. Anxiety disorders

Default mode network is most commonly shown to be active when a person is not focused on the outside world and brain is at wakeful rest such as day-dreaming and mind-wandering. But it is also active when an individual is thinking about others, thinking about themselves, remembering the past and planning for the future.

Knowledge was transferred from one generation to another by telling about objects, facts and events in the form of stories, poems and essays.

When people watch a movie, listen to a story or read a story, their DMNs are highly correlated with each other. DMNs are not correlated if stories are scrambled or are in a language the person does not understand. It is suggesting that network is highly involved in the comprehension and subsequent memory formation of that story. DMN is shown to even be correlated if the same story is presented to different people in different languages. It is further suggesting that DMN is truly involved in the comprehension aspect of knowledge and not the auditory or language aspect.

Default mode network may be deactivated during external goal-oriented tasks such as visual attention or cognitive working memory tasks. So, some researchers label this network as task-negative network. If tasks are external goal-oriented for social working memory or an autobiographical task, the DMN is positively activated with the task and correlates with other brain networks such as the network involved in executive function.

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Posterior cingulate cortex connects our brain and body to the space, object, time, instance and module of external surroundings to generate proper emotions in processing like the cinema, TV serials, music albums, news telecast or live broadcast. Fear factor is the default emotion of limbic circuits and it does not require neurotransmitters to activate the channels of emotion in work performance. It is considered that the emotions of fear and reward are generated in the amygdala of brain. In fact, posterior cingulate cortex is the generator of emotions because this is the central node of default mode network of brain.

We know that medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and angular gyrus are the main nodes of default mode network of brain. Instance produces a specific emotion in the posterior cingulate cortex of brain, then it is passed to anterior cingulate cortex for the modulation of zeid factors. Finally, these zeid factors are projected to amygdala to set emotional markers for the processing of knowledge transfer.

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Pictures : Microscope study image from the Pexels and brain image showing posterior cingulate cortex from the Wikipedia

Resources :

  • Clinical significance of neuroscience
  • Mechanisms of knowledge transfer in brain circuits
  • Wikipedia – Mental disorders and functional and anatomical studies of posterior cingulate cortex
  • Teaching as the system of knowledge transfer in education

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal


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