In humans, the cerebellum of brain plays an important role in motor learning and movement control. It may also be involved in some cognitive or executive functions such as attention, language and finger mapping as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses. But its movement or motor-coordination related functions are the most solidly established in the research work of neuroscience.
Anatomically, cerebellum is attached to the brainstem and it performs a number of motor, cognitive and limbic functions in collaboration with the different parts of cerebral cortex. Unconscious knowledge learning transfer occurs in cerebellar internal module that leads to enhanced executive control in working memory, thought coordination, outcome predictions and scientific discovery.
The cerebellum of human brain does not initiate movement but contributes to coordination, precision and accurate timing. It receives input from the sensory systems of spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces many types of disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, body posture and motor learning that can badly affect the conditions of working, learning and earning.
Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the different parts of cerebellum. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably precise learning to adjust to the changes in sensorimotor relationships of the motor knowledge. This is basis to develop smart brainpage for book to brain knowledge transfer in school system.
The cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa of human skull. The fourth ventricle, pons and medulla of brainstem are in front of the cerebellum. It is separated from the overlying cerebrum by a layer of leathery dura mater, known as tentorium cerebelli. All of its connections with other parts of brain travel through the pons of brainstem. Anatomists classify cerebellum as part of the metencephalon, which also includes the pons. From the evolutionary point of view, metencephalon is the upper part of the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.
Like the cerebral cortex, cerebellum is also divided into two hemispheres and it also contains a narrow midline zone known as the vermis. By conventional approach, a set of large folds is used to divide the overall structure into ten smaller lobules. Because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain. But it takes up only 10% of the total brain volume.
The number of neurons in cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex of brain. There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex. This ratio of specific neurons is conserved across many different mammalian species. That is why mammalians are more intelligent in motor knowledge than other species of the animals. It is important fact that cerebellar learnography can reduce the time span of educational years to finish the particular course or academic level of education.
The cerebellum is important for motor learning. It plays a major role in adapting and fine-tuning motor programs to make accurate movements through the trial-and-error process like learning to hit baseball. Although cerebellum is most understood in terms of its contributions to motor control, it is also involved in certain cognitive functions, such as language and thought enhancement. Thus, like the basal ganglia, the cerebellum is historically considered as part of the motor system, but its functions extend beyond motor control in ways that are well understood in fast learning and greater contributions in the advancement of science and technology.
The knowledge transfer of space, object, time, instance and module (SOTIM) is enhanced in the cerebellar learnography of human brain.