Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of human brain relate to specific psychological processes. Henry Molaison resided in a care institute in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, where he was the subject of ongoing investigation to develop the modern theories of cognitive science. His apparent ability was observed to complete tasks that require the recall of information from short-term memory and procedural memory. But long-term episodic memory was not found to mediate the recall from these memory systems, at least in part by the different areas of brain. Similarly, his ability to recall long-term memories that existed well before his surgery was intact. But new long-term memory was not possible. Molaison’s inability suggests that encoding and retrieval of long-term memory information may also be mediated by the distinct systems of amygdala, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus.
Study of Molaison’s living and working revolutionized understanding for the organization of human memory and working mechanism. It has provided broad evidence for the rejection of old theories and the formation of new theories on human memory and learning spectrum. The major insights of modern theory were outlined for learning mechanism and memory formation, in particular about its processes and underlying neural structures (Kolb & Whishaw 1996). These findings suggest revisiting raw data from behavioral testing. A discrete lesion was discovered in the pre-frontal cortex that was never suspected. The 3D virtual model of the brain allowed the dynamics of the surgery to be reconstructed, and found that the brain damage above the left orbit could have been created by Dr. Scoville when he lifted the frontal lobe to reach into the medial temporal lobes.
It has been discovered that the hippocampus and amygdala of brain play a significant role in cognitive improvement and memory formation. The researchers of neurobiology observed the living, thinking and learning of Molaison’s brain to develop the new theories of behavioral neuroscience. The study of brain parts described the general neuro-pathological state of brain via multiple imaging modalities. Molaison was living in the care center and he died when he was 82 years old. His brain had aged considerably and showed several pathological features which were severe to his cognitive decline.
After the death of Henry Molaison, his brain was fixed and preserved for further study. On December 4, 2009, Annese’s group acquired 2401 brain slices with only two damaged slices and 16 potentially problematic slices. The digital 3D reconstruction of his brain was finished at the beginning of 2014. It opened the new frontier of neuroscience which could help in finding the facts of learning mechanism and the memory formation of brain. The results of the pathological study were published in Nature Communications for January 2014. It was a great surprise, the researchers found that the half of Molaison’s hippocampus had survived the 1953 brain surgery. The remaining part of hippocampus had deep implications on past and future interpretations of Molaison’s neurobehavioral profile. The previous literature of findings was not true which described Henry Molaison as a pure hippocampus lesion patient.
Driving force of human life comes from the fear and reward systems of amygdala whereas hippocampus acts as a search engine for the working mechanism of brain. In fact, zeid markers are produced by anterior cingulate cortex and projected to the amygdala system of brain to identify the pattern of informative objects for long term potentiation. This is the part of limbic system, an evolutionarily highly conserved area that was well developed in animals before man, and is part of an active vigilance for survival mechanism. There are three phases of brain learnography – working, learning and building. So school learnography has also three phases like working phase, learning phase and building phase to make complete brainpage of knowledge chapter.
Working is the practice of chapter tasks and learning is the brainpage making process of knowledge chapter. While building is the formation of design and objects to describe the structure and function of subject matter. The sensory input system of cerebral cortex is the processor of stimulus and information. Prefrontal cortex is the moderator of facts, ideas and thoughts. But amygdala system of brain is the modulator of working, learning and building. It is connected with prefrontal cortex, an area involved with our highest intellectual properties, receive sensory inputs from it all the time. Deep learning is acquired from the hippocampal phase of brain. It extracts knowledge from the temporal region of brain and amygdala takes part in the processing of modular learning.
It is obvious that the school system of modern education is based on the teaching theories of cognitive science and its center is the prefrontal cortex of brain. Learnography is the school of knowledge transfer which deals with the science of learning mechanism based on the neurological studies of amygdala and hippocampus. It’s true that the amygdala system of student’s brain is hijacked in the highly motivated classroom of cognitive teaching and students often become Henry Molaison in the learning transfer of school system. The contribution of Molaison’s living gave knowledge and evidence to show the significance of amygdala and hippocampus in learning activities, memory recall and brainpage processing. After brain surgery, Henry Molaison faced cognitive decline and memory impairment in his life. Some of the past events were lost and future was never experienced. He was showing the permanent present tense in his regular life.
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