Tag Archives: Learning

Production of emotions takes place in the posterior cingulate cortex of human brain

Neuroscience is significant to treat the patients of mental disorders but it may be important also for the learning process of students. The volume of grey matter increases in the specific parts of our brain when something is practiced to succeed in work performance. It can be observed in neuroscience for clinical perspectives by using advanced technology. This is the advancement of neuroscience but it has done nothing in school system.

Instance guided object learning (IGOL) is very powerful in knowledge transfer because instance has strong projection in posterior cingulate cortex to reflect the reactance of learning emotions.

Teaching is the system of knowledge transfer in education, about 5000 years old system. We know that the learning mechanism of brain is important for knowledge transfer and neuroscience can provide a smart system of knowledge transfer for our children in classroom.

Highlights :

  • Default mode network (DMN) of brain circuits
  • Attention management system in the working brain
  • Permutations of fear factor in the emotional processing of perception
  • Fear of homework and teachers

Fear is the strongest factor of human emotions and other emotions such as love, hate, anger, pleasure, reward, failure, sadness and anxiety are its permutations. The disorders of posterior cingulate cortex may be attention eater in which the learning focus of brainpage making process is not maintained for the convergence of knowledge transfer. Sensory areas and roots are found in the posterior part of central nervous system, while motor areas and roots are localized in the anterior region of neural structures. This is the fundamental anatomy of brain circuits.

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Emotion is modulated to maintain and fix attention in a particular pathway of brain circuit for the performance of working mechanism. Depression is the disorder of fear factors caused in the cingulate cortex of human brain.

What is the basic function of emotion?

Fear is everywhere in our surroundings. Some people achieve great things in spite of their fear while other people are paralyzed into inaction by those very same fears. We establish relationship with everyone of those fears and anxieties. Depression, anger and anxiety come from a sense of disconnection. Anxiety makes us afraid of what we are are doing and thinking. It may happen that we could lose something, miss an opportunity or be inadequate.

Posterior cingulate cortex forms a central node in the default mode network (DMN) of brain. DMN is crucial to the working mechanism of brain and plays a significant role in the learning mechanism of knowledge transfer. It has been shown to communicate with several brain networks simultaneously and is involved in various functions related to attention management systems.

Posterior cingulate cortex of brain is the generator of emotionalized virtual reality to transfer knowledge spectrum in learning process.

The posterior cingulate cortex of brain is the caudal part of cingulate cortex, located posterior to anterior cingulate cortex. This is the upper part of limbic lobe. Cingulate cortex is made up of an area around the mid line of brain above corpus callosum. Surrounding areas of posterior cingulate cortex include the retrosplenial cortex and precuneus of subcortical region.

Fear factor is the root of emotional generator that is conducted in the posterior cingulate cortex of brain.

Along with precuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex of brain has been implicated as a neural substrate for awareness in numerous studies of both anesthesized and vegetative coma state. Imaging studies indicate a prominent role for posterior cingulate cortex in pain and episodic memory retrieval. Increased size of posterior ventral cingulate cortex is related to declines in working memory performance. The posterior cingulate cortex of human brain has been strongly implicated as a key part of several intrinsic control networks.

Structural and functional abnormalities in the posterior cingulate cortex of human brain result in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Posterior cingulate cortex likely integrates and mediates information in the working networks of brain. Therefore, its functional and anatomical abnormalities might be an accumulation of remote and widespread damage in the brain circuits.

Disorders :

  1. Alzheimer’s disease
  2. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  4. Depression
  5. Schizophrenia
  6. Traumatic brain injury
  7. Anxiety disorders

Default mode network is most commonly shown to be active when a person is not focused on the outside world and brain is at wakeful rest such as day-dreaming and mind-wandering. But it is also active when an individual is thinking about others, thinking about themselves, remembering the past and planning for the future.

Knowledge was transferred from one generation to another by telling about objects, facts and events in the form of stories, poems and essays.

When people watch a movie, listen to a story or read a story, their DMNs are highly correlated with each other. DMNs are not correlated if stories are scrambled or are in a language the person does not understand. It is suggesting that network is highly involved in the comprehension and subsequent memory formation of that story. DMN is shown to even be correlated if the same story is presented to different people in different languages. It is further suggesting that DMN is truly involved in the comprehension aspect of knowledge and not the auditory or language aspect.

Default mode network may be deactivated during external goal-oriented tasks such as visual attention or cognitive working memory tasks. So, some researchers label this network as task-negative network. If tasks are external goal-oriented for social working memory or an autobiographical task, the DMN is positively activated with the task and correlates with other brain networks such as the network involved in executive function.

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Posterior cingulate cortex connects our brain and body to the space, object, time, instance and module of external surroundings to generate proper emotions in processing like the cinema, TV serials, music albums, news telecast or live broadcast. Fear factor is the default emotion of limbic circuits and it does not require neurotransmitters to activate the channels of emotion in work performance. It is considered that the emotions of fear and reward are generated in the amygdala of brain. In fact, posterior cingulate cortex is the generator of emotions because this is the central node of default mode network of brain.

We know that medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and angular gyrus are the main nodes of default mode network of brain. Instance produces a specific emotion in the posterior cingulate cortex of brain, then it is passed to anterior cingulate cortex for the modulation of zeid factors. Finally, these zeid factors are projected to amygdala to set emotional markers for the processing of knowledge transfer.

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Pictures : Microscope study image from the Pexels and brain image showing posterior cingulate cortex from the Wikipedia

Resources :

  • Clinical significance of neuroscience
  • Mechanisms of knowledge transfer in brain circuits
  • Wikipedia – Mental disorders and functional and anatomical studies of posterior cingulate cortex
  • Teaching as the system of knowledge transfer in education

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal


Place of knowledge transfer is brainpage school to launch learning on the dimensions of working mechanism

Learning new knowledge is found difficult in beginning because brain circuit is not prepared for processing. So it needs the cycles of repetition for smooth processing. Our brain launches cyclozeid (learning machine) in the diencephalon of subcortical region to rehearse neural pathways for the opening of synaptic potentials.

Circuit and cyclozeid of brain learnography are crucial to knowledge transfer of classroom.

Function of brain circuits related to control is known as the brainpage competence of work performance. Our ability to do something and do it well depends on the indirect pathways of inhibitory control. The brain’s ability to assess our performance and abilities accurately is a crucial cognitive function of the association cortex. It allows us to make valid decisions about what we should do and shouldn’t do.

Highlights :

  • Repetition or rehearsal is the mother of all types of learning
  • Working mechanism of human brain
  • Brainpage school and knowledge transfer
  • Role of mirror neurons in the environment of learning development

How the brain judges exactly its own performance is related to the knowledge transfer of learning process. But it is important to place a lot of value on the competence. The volume of important gray matter packed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of frontal lobe increases in the processing of knowledge transfer. Other parts of prefrontal cortex are also important for fast learning and successful processing. The environment of learning development provides a suitable place in classroom where mirror neurons become activated to enhance the learning process of subject matter.

Learning is interpreted into the meaningful segments of language for better understanding. Comprehensive ability comes from knowledge transfer and its center is the temporal lobe of cerebral cortex.

The object definition of chapter produces learning spectrum in the association areas of brain. To remember object definitions for days or years later, students will have to reactivate successfully the same neural circuits of knowledge transfer. Obviously, it will be easier when they first learn object definition to make spectrum by repeating it and thus sending the corresponding nerve impulses into brain circuits many times. In contrast, if students repeat object definition only a few times, then the connections among new neurons would be weaker and new circuit would be harder to reactivate.

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In this way, students have to repeat new knowledge several times in brainpage making process and then brainpage is used for learning, writing and understanding. Modular brainpage selects and strengthens the connections among these various neuronal circuits in cerebral cortex. This is new durable association among particular neurons that will form the spectrum memory of knowledge segment.

Segmentation is the breaking process of knowledge for high speed learning but the building process of module is the integration of required solution.

Of course, the strength of this association may depend on several factors like rehearsal, procedural knowledge and environment of learning development. When we learn something new definition, it is actually the process of knowledge transfer. During the practice of rehearsal, the synapses of these neurons facilitate the potentials and passage of nerve impulses along particular brain circuit to increase the efficiency of knowledge transfer.

For instance, when students are exposed to a new segment of knowledge, they have to make new synaptic connections among the certain neurons of brain to deal with knowledge transfer. Some neurons in the visual cortex will recognize the spelling, others in auditory cortex may hear reading pronunciation and still others in the associative regions of cerebral cortex will relate the segment to sum up with existing knowledge. It is fact that a mistake also draws the attention of its maker to fix the problem with suitable content.

Amygdala system of brain needs the zeid factors of learning mechanism, so the target of grade performance is required in knowledge transfer.

What are the learning dimensions of school system? Are students in your school talking mostly about their grades or mostly about what they’re learning? Teaching is everything in school system, so they are always engaged in listening to teaching performance. Students do not think of knowledge transfer and remain busy mostly in chatpage with other classmates. Let’s create the environment of brainpage school and keep the focus on the learning dimensions of knowledge transfer to make smart brainpage and achieve high grades in school performance.

The science of book to brain knowledge transfer is applied in the classrooms of school learnography. Students are transformed into the small teachers of classroom. This is the School 2020 of knowledge transfer based on the ancient Taxshila Design of school system. Students must have the understanding of brain learnography challenges like brainpage coding, brainpage performance and brainpage management in the learning process of knowledge transfer.

Cyclozeid is launched in brain circuitry to make brainpage module of learning and memory.

Do you believe that learning has to be hard work in school system? Teaching potential makes it difficult and challenging task in classroom. In truth, learning becomes very easy in brainpage making process.

In brain learnography, synaptic potential develops to project the zeid stream of learning impulses in brain circuits. Knowledge transfer is only as hard as teaching theories make it hard in school system. New knowledge must be sliced into the segments of breaking process at a level that kids can handle and learning does not have to be difficult in problem solving activities. This is the breaking process of knowledge known as segmentation.

How much easy are students making learning process in classroom?

Parents send their children to school for the acquisition of knowledge, skill and merit through brainpage transfer. Education is the system of teaching schools but brainpage school is defined in the system of learnography in which knowledge transfer takes place through the learning mechanism of brain using the brainpage modulation of knowledge chapters.

Students are advised to finish learning on the paper through reading and writing practice. But it is finished actually in brain parts with knowledge transfer.

Brainpage theory is everything in school system to transfer knowledge in classroom and write exact answers in the exams. Teaching keeps students engaged at school for seven hours per day, but it does not transfer knowledge to brain circuits. There are five types of brain learning circuits such as cognitive circuit, limbic circuit, memory circuit, motor circuit and zeid circuit.

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The learning circuit of neocortex is defined as cognitive circuit in which the cerebral cortex of frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes are involved in the knowledge transfer of subject matter. Logical analysis, reasoning query algorithms and mistake correction are processed in this learning circuit of brain in which classroom teaching is not effective to launch knowledge transfer in learning process.

Zeid factor of limbic circuit plays a vital role in decision making process. Emotion is the source of zeid factors that produces learning drives in knowledge transfer and it is described in the cingulate cortex of brain. This is the main part of limbic circuit that makes knowledge transfer significant to attention and memory.

In fact, the emotion of knowledge transfer is generated in the posterior cingulate gyrus which is highly convoluted and connected to the association areas of sensory cortex. Then it is passed to anterior cingulate cortex where learning receives cognition from prefrontal cortex and is transformed into emotional knowledge. Zeid factor is produced from the emotional knowledge of anterior cingulate gyrus and then zeid factor is projected to amygdala and hippocampus for the further processing of limbic circuit.

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Picture : Brain specimen, the featured image from the Pexels

Resources :

  • Learning Design in School 2020
  • Brain circuits of knowledge transfer
  • Opening of synaptic potentials in classroom
  • Temporal lobes of brain as knowledge processor

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal

Brainpage theory is everything in the knowledge transfer of school system

Students are transformed into the small teachers of classroom. This is the School 2020 of knowledge transfer based on the ancient Taxshila Design of school system. Students must have the understanding of brain learnography challenges like brainpage coding, brainpage performance and brainpage management in the learning process of knowledge transfer. It is an amazing fact of the school education that some of the well-educated parents prefer homeschooling for knowledge transfer and better academic performance.

Students are encouraged in classroom to conduct knowledge transfer using the brainpage theory of learnography. Do it by yourself means do it without the help of anyone, whether expert or not. DIYA ethic refers to the ethic of self-sufficiency through completing tasks without the aid of a paid professional. Literally meaning “Do It Yourself Attitude”, the DIYA ethic promotes the idea that anyone is capable of performing a variety of tasks rather than relying on paid specialists.

Highlights :

  • Zeid factor and focused learning
  • Prominent educators and their teaching theories
  • A classroom of small teachers
  • Challenges of knowledge transfer

Small teachers must have open source learning in classroom that they are makers and creators in the field of learnography. They don’t sit around waiting for things to happen. They make them happen for instance guided object learning. They like the engagement that they get with their classroom moderator (big teacher) at these kinds of knowledge transfer and brainpage making process.

Why are students talking mostly about their grade performance in school system?

We know that knowledge transfer is directly proportional to the learning drives of brain. Grade target is the source of zeid factors in real learning. In classroom, students are always suggested to keep the focus on learning activities, not on grade preparation. Educators are trained in the teaching theories of education but they don’t know the brainpage theory of learnography in which zeid factor is projected in limbic circuit to produce learning drives in the working mechanism of brain. It’s true that grades can activate the production of zeid factors in limbic circuit to draw the learning pathways of high performance.

One of the international educators asked, “Are students in your school talking mostly about their grades or mostly about what they’re learning?” He said, “Let’s create school environments that shift the conversation. And keep the focus on learning chapters, not on grades.” This motivation is not appropriate to generate zeid factors for the learning mechanism of brain. Why are we working at the office or in the factory? To get the salary is the simple answer of earning. Salary is the earning of money that can project zeid factors to the amygdala system of brain based on loss aversion rule.

Why do we sometimes struggle hard when we are learning something new?

When we learn something, neural circuits are altered in our brain. These circuits are composed of a number of neurons (nerve cells) that communicate with one another through special junctions called synapses. It has been discovered that learning is about creating and strengthening neural pathways in brain that allow knowledge to transfer between brain cells. The first time synaptic potential crosses from one brain cell to another requires the greatest effort. The first projection is the most difficult, but knowledge transfer becomes easier over time. As we continue to apply effort to new challenges, we establish more stable and reliable zeid pathways, until the synaptic connection is so strong that knowledge transfer becomes effortless without hard cognitive thinking.

Do-It-Yourself-Attitude (DIYA)

Do It Yourself Attitude means just do it without the help of experts and also without the help of any guide. But you might take the help of a friend or anyone who is not professional and you don’t need to pay him. In village learnography, Do It Yourself Attitude is the method of building, modifying or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. DIYA is abbreviation for do-it-yourself-attitude. This is the activity of decorating, repairing home or making other things for your home yourself, rather than paying someone else to do it for you.

Human brain creates modular brainpage of the world around us. We can use this modulation to perceive and comprehend what we see at any given space with objects and time. We also collect memories and experiences from our past life and imagine progressive future to draw the pathways of intuitive destiny. Anterior hippocampus of the brain is engaged at these high level cognitive functions such as perception, imagination and recall of scenes and events.

Create Wealth With DIYA, Do It Yourself Attitude

Billy is neither expert nor professional, but he saved $400 by repairing the furnace at his home. The working mechanism of brain always transfers knowledge and experience in the circuits of brain learnography. Since Billy disliked spending money on things that don’t improve the quality of his life or happiness like home maintenance, he decided that he was going to try to fix furnace problem himself.

So, he googled the problem on internet and watched some youtube videos to learn how to fix the problem. He educated himself first by studying online sources and then knew new skills to fix the working parts of furnace. Billy learned that the projects of do-it-yourself-attitude aren’t something he needed to be afraid of outcomes.

In fact, learning how to become a do-it-yourself-master is one of the best ways to save money, reinvest the money you saved and begin your journey to wealth. Billy purchased some parts and goods at $100 from the market for furnace maintenance. Then he made the imaginative plan of maintenance and repaired the furnace before winter by saving $400.

Embrace the do-it-yourself-attitude of performance in learning, writing and working. You can do it. Save yourself some cash from repairing and then invest the money you saved. Let a DIYA project become your secret weapon to create wealth by repairing and saving. It has worked well for Billy and he has completed a couple of other projects himself. The logic and math of DIYA project are simple in practice. One way to become wealthy is by finding $100 do-it-yourself solutions to $500 problems, and then reinvesting the money you save over and over again.

In fact, the zeid factors of our brain decide the working pathways of our life. There are five main brain circuits of knowledge transfer such as cognitive circuit, limbic circuit, memory circuit, motor circuit and zeid circuit. The circuitry of human brain is unique in advanced learning mechanism and modular brainpage making process for school performance. Mistake is a form of zeid factor that always draws the attention of its maker to fix the problem with suitable content. Self-taught individual knows the techniques of mistake theory and brainpage correction. Obviously, mistake is a great teacher that directs the right pathway to performance and success.

The functions of DIYA modulation are processed in the limbic circuit of cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and diencephalon to project the zeid factor in amygdala memory circuit for loss aversion. Zeid factor is related to inhibitory competing behavior in the selection of working pathways. This is our cognitive ability to do something and do it well. Brain’s ability to assess our performance accurately is a crucial cognitive function in knowledge transfer. It allows us to make valid decisions about what we should do and shouldn’t do.

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Picture : Cube functions providing the rehearsals of brainpage theory, free pictures from the PEXELS

Resources :

  • Brainpage theory, DIYA Projects and knowledge transfer
  • Billy and Do It Yourself Projects
  • Grade performance and learning activities
  • Brain circuits for knowledge transfer

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal

All types of learning are converted into limbic knowledge with zeid factor in the Papez Circuit of brain before memory processing

Cinema is defined as motion picture and it is a great source of entertainment. We watch movies in the theater and moving pictures are projected on the screen with sound like talking voice, dialogues, songs and music. The cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. This is a series of still images that create the illusion of moving images when shown on the screen.

Individual images that make up a film are called frames . In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision. In this effect, the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of second after its source disappears. The perception of motion happens due to the psychological effect called the phi phenomenon.

Highlights :

  • Cingulate cortex is the main part of limbic system.
  • Zeid factors of learning mechanism are processed for knowledge transfer.
  • Papez Circuit is true circuit for emotional processing and knowledge transfer.
  • Cinema watching is processed in the Papez Circuit of brain.

Why are we so much connected to the characters, dialogues, behavioral acting, tragedy and places of the film?

Which parts of our brain become activated during film watching to experience the real perception of life and happenings?

We know that the film watching is not real and this is the projection of moving images integrated with sound system. Actors have played distinguished characters and highly emotional scenes are prepared with special graphic effects. It is fact that cinema watching runs on the brainpage theory of instance guided object learning (IGOL). It is powerful to produce zeid factors in the Papez Circuit of brain that can provide the strong connections of emotions and attachments to the segments and modules of particular film.

In the theater, we believe that the events of film projection are real happenings. Sometimes we laugh on comedy or weep during the watching of pathetic scenes. Where is reality and why do we attach much to film, music, songs or videos? It happens due to the strong connectivity of emotions that is produced by the limbic circuits of brain. It is also true that we can apply the mechanism of emotion connectivity in the knowledge transfer of school system.

Knowledge is transferred to brain through the different circuits of modulation. School system provides quality education and learning is consolidated in the memory circuit of brain. In fact, school is the place of knowledge transfer which runs in the learning mechanism of brain.

Declarative memory refers to knowledge memories that are consciously recalled as the episodes of life. It depends primarily on medial temporal lobe, amygdala and hippocampus. Procedural memory refers to the memories that are responsible for learning and remembering cognitive and motor skills. It depends primarily on the basal ganglia and cerebellum of brain.

Knowledge transfer is initialized in the primary cortex of brain but it is analyzed and rationalized in association cortex. Then cognitive knowledge is projected to the limbic circuit of cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and diencephalon. This is the Papez Circuit of limbic system where cognitive knowledge is emotionalized to form limbic knowledge for the generation of zeid factors.

These zeid factors of limbic knowledge are projected to the memory circuit of amygdala to encode the learning of knowledge transfer for consolidation. Learnographic circuit runs in basal ganglia where limbic knowledge is processed into motor knowledge. Cerebellar learnography runs in the zeid circuit of cerebellum in which motor knowledge is modulated with space, object, time, instance and module to increase the efficiency of working mechanism.

Zeid factor is emotionally charged decision that is projected to amygdala for the learning and memory of knowledge transfer. The triangular neural circuit of parahippocampal gyrus, diencephalon and cingulate gyrus is known as the limbic circuit of knowledge transfer in which all types of learning inputs are converted into limbic knowledge for the amygdala processing of zeid factors. Cingulate cortex is responsible for the generation of zeid factor that is projected to amygdala for the emotional processing of learning and memory.

Amygdala is a brain structure lying underneath the uncus of temporal lobe. It is primarily involved in the learning factors of life and regulates various stages of memory formation in other brain regions, such as hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. It is also associated with the consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories.

The structures of medial temporal lobe including hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and perirhinal cortex in conjunction with amygdala play a pivotal role in declarative memory formation, memory consolidation and contextual fear memory formation. In addition, the amygdala influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to release stress hormones that subsequently regulate memory consolidation as well as storage in cerebellum, sensory neocortex, and medial temporal lobe.

Besides memory consolidation, retrieval of contextual memory is also regulated by the interplay between amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Posterior hippocampus encodes the memories of specific objects and their location in a particular context. Anterior hippocampus participates in memory formation that strongly differentiates between contexts. Such contextual memories from the anterior hippocampus are passed on to the prefrontal cortex, which subsequently facilitates the retrieval of specific object-related memories through perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortex.

The limbic circuit of cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and diencephalon describes the pathways of instance guided object learning (IGOL) that needs the projection of zeid factors. It is similar to Papez Circuit that conducts the functions of zeid factor for aversion or appreciation. Papez Circuit is also true to generate the zeid factors of knowledge transfer dealing with aversion or approval for the projections of amygdala.

Teaching system gives only conventional learning that isn’t efficient for book to brain fast transfer. Cyclozeid of knowledge transfer is launched in the amygdala system of brain and learnograph is generated in hippocampal formation. Make brainpage school for knowledge transfer using the dimensions of learnography and change the world with high academic performance.

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Picture : Sagittal section of brain showing the limbic circuit of cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and diencephalon

Resources :

  • Limbic processing of working and learning
  • Knowledge transfer and zeid circuit
  • Zeid factors of working and learning
  • Papez Circuit and emotional processing
  • McLean circuit for learning and memory

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal

Facts and findings of neuroscience must be applied to develop smart classroom of knowledge transfer in school system

Learning mechanism of brain is important for the knowledge transfer of school system. Research has been carried out in neuroscience to know the learning parts of brain but facts and findings have been collected for clinical perspectives. To treat mental and behavioral disorders is targeted in research work but no brain theory for book to brain knowledge transfer has been put forward for the advancement of school system.

Highlights :

  • Applied neuroscience and its findings for academic perspectives
  • Student’s brain and strong learning potentials
  • Dorsal and ventral brain roots of knowledge transfer
  • Basic parts of human brain to deal with learning mechanism

Human brain has the functional fundamental modalities of knowledge transfer such as learnogram, zeidgram, cyclozeid, learnograph and zeidgraph. Input and output processings are significant to smart learning in the working mechanism of brain. Learnogram of knowledge transfer runs in the association area of sensory cortex which is dorsal or posterior root of input processor. Association area of motor cortex provides the output processing of brain learning known as the zeidgram of knowledge transfer.

Whole education from school to university can be completed within 15 years’ time span using the brainpage theory of knowledge transfer.

We know that sensory cortex is the posterior root of knowledge transfer that conducts the input processing of learning mechanism. Once sensory information has entered into the cerebral cortex of brain, the learnogram of association areas starts the processing and analyzing of this information. Sensory information is combined and evaluated to be projected in the subcortical regions of brain. Then it is processed with definition spectrum and compared to prior experiences to provide the brain with an accurate picture of knowledge transfer.

Frontal lobes of brain describe motor cortex in general and this is the center of output processing considered as anterior roots of knowledge transfer. Zeidgram of its association areas also works to develop the plans of action that are sent to the brain’s motor regions to observe behavioral changes in the body through muscles or glands. Association areas are also important to create the zeidgram of our thoughts, plans and personality.

Teaching theories of education prescribed for knowledge transfer in school system

Input system of brain mechanism is responsible for the knowledge transfer of school chapters. Visual perception is advanced for smart learning and it produces strong memory in learning mechanism. It has been believed that inputs from different sensory organs are processed in the different areas of brain. Modulation of space, object and time within and among these specialized areas of the brain is known as the functional integration of knowledge transfer.

It is described in neuroscience that these different regions of the brain may not be solely responsible for only one sensory modality. But it could use multiple inputs to perceive what the body receives about its learning transfer. Multi-sensory integration is necessary for almost every activity that students perform during learning process. This combination of multiple sensory inputs is essential for school children to comprehend and consolidate the knowledge transfer of classroom.

Input processing of brain is activated by the sensory information of knowledge transfer and then the learning goes to association cortex for integrated composite transformation. This is the learnogram of knowledge transfer running in the posterior root of brain to develop the matrix and spectrum of subject matter.

Cognitive, limbic and motor loops of basal ganglia are important for the rehearsal of knowledge transfer. Cyclozeid is high speed learning machine which runs in the three circuits of basal ganglia to converge all types of learning into corresponding motor knowledge. It brings significant changes in attitude, behavior and thought. Amygdala projects learning drives in the working mechanism of brain and student’s chapter learnograph is modulated and consolidated in the hippocampal formation of medial temporal lobe.

Obviously, basal ganglia, diencephalon, cingulate cortex, hippocampal formation and amygdala are the five basic regions of subcortical brain included under the amygdala system of brain learnography.

In this way, two of the modalities such as cyclozeid and learnograph are projected in the amygdala system of brain. The ultimate transfer of knowledge occurs in the lateral posterior regions of cerebellum where refined motor knowledge is stored with space, object, time, instance and module. This is defined as the zeidgraph of knowledge transfer consolidated in cerebellar folia for the future events of life. That is why cerebellum contains large number of neurons more than half of the total neurons in brain.

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Resources :

  • Posterior roots of cerebral cortex for the learning mechanism of brain
  • Anterior roots of knowledge transfer in cerebral cortex
  • Brainpage theory of learnogram and zeidgram
  • Basal ganglia as the cyclozeid of knowledge transfer
  • Research work of neuroscience for clinical perspectives

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal

Learning circuit of knowledge transfer is activated by the amygdala system of human brain

Techniques, speed, format and quality of the working brain are very important to achieve success in the learning mechanism of knowledge chapters. We know that learning is the knowledge transfer of subject matter. In school system, teaching performance runs on motivational techniques and high motivation stops the learning functions of amygdala system. Query matrix of knowledge set projects techniques to the prefrontal cortex of brain and speed is attained from the brainpage of definition spectrum. Format is evident in work performance and it is delivered by the application of task formator.

Prefrontal cortex is a part of the brain located at the front of frontal lobe. It is implicated in a variety of complex behaviors including planning and greatly contributes to personality development. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is connected to ventral tegmental area, amygdala, temporal lobe, olfactory system and dorsomedial thalamus to receive input information for cognitive processing.

Amygdala system of brain must be rationalized in the learning process of school system, but it does not happen in the teaching theories of knowledge transfer. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a vital role in the rationalization of amygdala system to inhibit harmful activities.

Executive functions, judgment, planning and high order functions are processed in prefrontal cortex. It also sends signals to many different brain regions including temporal lobe, amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, hippocampal formation, cingulate cortex and other regions of the prefrontal cortex. This huge network of connections affords ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) the ability to receive and monitor large amounts of sensory data and to affect and influence the projections of other brain regions, particularly the amygdala.

Amygdala plays a significant role in instigating the emotional reactions associated with anger and violence. With the vmPFC’s outputs to the amygdala, the vmPFC plays a part in preventing such behavior. Evidence has shown that impulsive criminals have decreased activity in prefrontal cortex and increased activity in subcortical areas such as the amygdala.

Brainpage theory of knowledge transfer is significant to increase functional activities in the regions of prefrontal cortex. The imbalance of amygdala with cortical areas can enhance actions that are created by negative emotions and limit the ability of prefrontal cortex to control these harmful emotions. Lower activation in the prefrontal cortex is also correlated with anti-social behavior. The dysfunction of ventromedial prefrontal cortex seems to be caused by lower levels of serotonin release.

How did Henry Molaison lose the ability of memory formation and why did he spend rest of his life in parmanent present tense?

In 1953, Henry Molaison underwent surgical removal of portions of the medial temporal lobes. Anterior hippocampus and surrounding regions were removed in an attempt to cure his epileptic seizures. Following the lobotomy surgery, his cognitive functions were mostly intact but he lost the ability to create new memories for facts and events, a condition known as anterograde amnesia. Such amnesia is typical in disorders that involve hippocampal dysfunction. In Alzheimer disease, hippocampus undergoes massive cell loss which is associated with memory deficits that manifest in early stages of the disease.

Why do London taxi drivers have the large volume of gray matter in posterior hippocampus in comparison to anterior region?

London cab drivers have the large volume of gray matter in posterior hippocampus and less gray matter in anterior hippocampus. It is fact that the knowledge of pathway navigation is related to the survival factors of life according to evolutionary perspective.

London taxi drivers are significantly more knowledgeable about the landmarks of pathway navigation and their spatial relationships. It is required to pass the tests of taxi driving license and so they practice heavily to consolidate the learning and spatial memory of pathways navigational motor knowledge. We know that anterior hippocampus is responsible for emotional, cognitive and associative processing. So, these drivers are observed weak in analytical reasoning, cognitive applications, academic knowledge and rational thoughts.

Stress and depression are associated with a loss of ability to generate new cells in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampus also shows loss of dendritic spines and reduced dendritic branching throughout its anatomical structure. In fact, hippocampal dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia and associated disorders. It suggests that the hippocampal region of subcortical brain is particularly vulnerable to neuropsychiatric disease. Individuals who survive a hypoxic episode such as temporary deprivation of oxygen in brain often sustain hippocampal damage and anterograde amnesia.

Anterior hippocampus is connected to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex and is thought to be involved principally in the regulation of emotion and stress. The posterior hippocampus is preferentially connected to the retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices and is thought to be involved principally in cognitive and spatial processing.

The hippocampus of brain which is located in the medial region of temporal lobe forms the part of limbic system. It is particularly important in regulating emotional responses. Hippocampus is thought to be principally involved in storing long term memories and in making those memories resistant to learning and working. It is also thought to play an important role in spatial processing and pathway navigation.

School shooting is the evidence of education failing in the knowledge transfer of school system. It happens when there is diminished volume of the gray matter particularly in the areas of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex and so amygdala system of the brain is not rationalized in learning process. It is remarkable that school shooter is a student or former student. We have to change the teaching theories of school system in which amygdala system will be rationalized and students may secure highly developed prefrontal cortex in knowledge transfer.

School 2020 is the brainpage school of learnography. Academic knowledge is changed into emotional knowledge and then it is transformed into motor knowledge of performance. School 2020 is the brainpage school of knowledge transfer in which teaching is not necessary and homework is not required. Everything is finished in classroom. You can find the techniques, speed and format of work performance in the cerebellar learnography of human brain. This is the smart learning of knowledge transfer in which highly developed prefrontal cortex can be obtained during the learning process of classroom situations.

Picture : Sagittal section of human brain showing cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, uncus, amygdala, fornix, thalamus, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies

Home : Learnography

Resources :

  • Rationalization of amygdala system
  • Incidence of school shooting
  • Prefrontal cortex and cognitive development
  • Henry Molaison and anterograde amnesia
  • London taxi drivers and posterior hippocampus

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal

Amygdala system of brain projects first dimension of knowledge transfer in school performance

Success of academic performance depends upon the efficiency of knowledge transfer held in school system to provide quality learning for students. Subject matter is written in source book and it is transferred to brain through the process of brainpage modulation. Learning drives are needed in classroom to know the subject matter of prescribed chapters. In fact, learning initiative plays a critical role in the knowledge transfer of classroom, triggered by the amygdala system of brain.

Hippocampus of brain is primarily involved in learning and memory, while amygdala is primarily responsible for emotional processing. It is important to knowledge transfer that how sensory information gets to the brain and how motor knowledge can travel to the muscles of body parts for smart learning, precise writing and hard working. Together these two systems allow us to detect and respond to the learning of subject matter. But how do students engage with that knowledge transfer? How do they determine what is important for fast learning?

All types of knowledge transfer ultimately converted into the motor knowledge of cerebellar learnography

These are some basic queries of classroom performance in which learning will be secured and complete in school hours. Student’s activities must be focused to master the subject matter of chapter using the learning dimensions of brain. So, how do they conduct knowledge transfer in classroom situations? These higher cortical functions involve the complex circuits of amygdala system between neurotransmitters and hormones throughout the entire nervous system of learning mechanism. There are two main anatomical substrates of human brain like amygdala and anterior hippocampus that influence the learning process of students for the smart brainpage of knowledge chapters.

Amygdala describes the basic emotions of working mechanism and plays a vital part in the learning of survival factors such as life threats, food aroma, secured shelter, pathways navigation and reproductive drives. This is the core part of limbic system that decides the actions of physical body for the survival aspects of life in the particular field of surroundings. Amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and other accessory nuclei form the amygdala system of brain that deals with the survival functions of life.

Learnogram of book to brain knowledge transfer runs in the association areas of cerebral cortex

Learning mechanism of brain is crucial to facilitate brainpage making process in the modulation of school chapters. Amygdala with anterior hippocampus plays a critical role in the knowledge transfer of school system. Amygdala system of brain deals with the three transfer circuits of cerebral cortex. Sensory cortex is considered as the input processor of knowledge transfer while the output processor of transfer circuit is defined in motor cortex and other frontal regions. Temporal lobe provides the circuit of knowledge processor.

Posterior to central sulcus is the region of input processor and this is also known as sensory inputs of information. Anterior to central sulcus is the region of output processor where higher order cortical function runs to rationalize the transfer of knowledge chapters by applying the modulation of motor knowledge.

The knowledge processor of information is located in temporal region of brain, inferior to lateral sulcus. Amygdala and hippocampus are found in medial temporal lobe and they act as the knowledge processor of learning mechanism. We know that hippocampus is the part of diencephalon and amygdala comes under the limbic system of brain. Temporal knowledge processor is the structure of interpretation and understanding that supports the many higher cortical functions of knowledge transfer.

Why is amygdala encapsulated in the uncus of medial temporal lobe?

Uncus is a hook shaped part located near the front of temporal lobe which is concerned with the senses of smell and taste. This is the anterior hooked extremity of parahippocampal gyrus on the basomedial surface of temporal lobe. The anterior face of uncus corresponds to the olfactory cortex and its ventral surface to entorhinal area. It is remarkable that deep to uncus lies the amygdala which has direct projections from the senses of smell and taste.

Food aroma is perceived by the senses of smell and taste which is vital to the survival of living organisms. First of all, olfactory sense developed during evolution to detect food aroma in the environment. Therefore, amygdala is very old part of the nervous system that regulates vital functions for the survival of life. So, it also plays critical roles in learning mechanism and information processing.

Amoeba is an unicellular animal and it has no sense organs. But it can detect food aroma in the surroundings for feeding. Amoeba eats tiny plants and animals present in pond water where it lives. It takes in food by extending finger like structures called pseudopodia from any part of its body. When a food particle comes near the amoeba, it produces two pseudopodia around the food particle and surrounds it. These pseudopodia then join around food particle and trap it in a food vacuole with a little water. So, the basic functions of amygdala system can be observed also in the feeding process of unicellular amoeba.

In human brain, amygdala is also connected with prefrontal cortex, an area involved with higher intellectual functions and receives sensory inputs from it all the time. But this is not a part of the conscious brain for thinking and reasoning. It does not think through images or situations in logical ways. Instead, amygdala is a part of the limbic system, an evolutionarily highly conserved area that was well developed in animals before man. This is the important part of brain to deal with loss aversion behavior and project an active vigilance for survival mechanism. It also decides zeid marker for learning efficiency and memory consolidation in the successful transfer of knowledge chapters.

Emotional knowledge is developed by the amygdala system of brain to show gesture, reactance and behavior in working and learning. It can be changed into learning force for cognitive learning and brainpage modulation. So, precise motor knowledge helps in the motivational control of knowledge transfer. The amygdala is an almond shaped structure underlying the uncus and located ventrally to corpus striatum in medial part of the temporal lobe. It also projects reciprocal connections to hypothalamus, basal ganglia and the regions of cerebral cortex. It plays important roles in visceral, endocrine and cognitive functions related to motivational behaviour.

Cerebellum is the miniaturized form of cerebrum in the working mechanism of brain. Motor knowledge is produced in the cerebral cortex of cerebrum. While motor knowledge is rehearsed in basal ganglia and precise motor knowledge develops in cerebellar learnography. Teaching is the performance of motor knowledge in which academic knowledge is transformed into motor knowledge by cerebellar learnography. Rational knowledge is embedded into emotional knowledge, then transformed into motor information for proper action. Amygdala system of student’s brain is hijacked in classroom during cerebellar teaching process and high motivation.

Home : Learnography

Picture : Coronal section of human brain showing inferior lateral ventricles, uncus, amygdala, temporal lobe, frontal lobe and anterior lateral ventricles

Resources :

  • Roles of amygdala and anterior hippocampus in learning mechanism
  • Neuroscience of knowledge transfer
  • Knowledge circuits in the cerebral cortex of human brain
  • Three circuits of knowledge transfer
  • Sensory cortex, motor cortex and knowledge cortex

Shiva Narayan Jha
Golden Star Secondary School
Rajbiraj, Nepal